Instructional Resources

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Phonemes are the smallest unit of sound in spoken language that influence meaning. The English sound system consists of approximately 44 individual sounds (depending on who does the counting). The sounds are combined in numerous ways to form more than a million spoken words. These same 44+ sounds are represented in written English by the 26 letters of the alphabet, and therein lies the challenge in learning to read and write in English - too many sounds, too few letters to represent them.

Visitors are encouraged to explore and use the RRI resources. The copyrighted materials are royalty free for instructional use only. Any reproduction or distribution for commercial or other use requires written permission from The Reading Research Institute.